OTHER LANGUAGE GROUPS IN EUROPE
Map showing the
approximate current distribution of languages in Europe.
There are several linguistic groups widely
recognized in Europe. These sometimes (but not
always) coincide with cultural and historical connections between the various
nations, though in other cases religion is considered a more significant
Germanic languages are spoken more or less in
north -western Europe and some parts of central Europe. This region consists of: Iceland, Ireland, the
United Kingdom, Flanders and the German-speaking areas of Belgium, the
Netherlands, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Luxembourg, Germany, Denmark, most of
Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Liechtenstein, the Swedish-speaking
municipalities of Finland, and South Tyrol in Italy.
Romance languages are spoken more or less in
south-western Europe, as well as Romania
and Moldova which are
situated in Eastern Europe.This area consists of: Italy, Spain,
Portugal, France, Romania,
Moldova, Wallonia, Romandy, French-speaking Switzerland,
and Italian-speaking Switzerland.
All Romance languages are derived from the Roman language, Latin.
Slavic languages are spoken in Central and Eastern Europe. This area consists of: Belarus, Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Bulgaria,
Croatia, the Czech Republic,
Macedonia, Poland, Russia,
Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia,
Slovenia and Ukraine.
The Uralic Languages are divided into three
groups of which the Finno-Permic languages are spoken
in Finland, Estonia and European Russia while the Ugric
languages are spoken in Hungary
and Siberian Russia.
Turkic Languages are spoken in Turkey,
Azerbaijan, the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, parts of
Bulgaria, parts of Romania, parts of Macedonia, parts of Moldova, parts of
Russia, parts of Ukraine and parts of the Caucasus.
Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia. Estonia’s national
language is part of the Finno-Ugric family even though it is a Baltic state geographically.
Celtic Europe, where Celtic languages are
spoken, or where they were previously spoken and the population still shares a Celtic heritage for non-linguistic reasons. The
Celtic nations are: Ireland,
Scotland (UK), Wales(UK), Cornwall (UK), the Isle of
Man (a British Crown dependency) and Brittany
These are all nations where a Celtic language is spoken, or was spoken into
modern times, and there is a degree of shared culture (see Pan Celticism).
Sometimes considered Celtic nations are Galicia and Asturias (both autonomous
communities of Spain), whose
own Celtic language died out a millennium ago, and England
where Celtic influence remains in some regional dialects (see Cumbric), although England's
Celtic languages died out as recently as the 18th century in Devon.
The main religions are Catholicism and Protestantism, which are particularly
mixed in Northern Ireland
Outside of these six main linguistic groups one
spoken in Greece and Cyprus.
The Albanian language is
its own independent branch of the Indo-European language family with no close
living relatives. There is no scholarly consensus over its origin. Some
scholars maintain that it derives from the Illyrian language.
Ibero-Caucasian, a group that includes ethnic groups throughout the Caucasus region (both North and South). Ibero-Caucasian languages
are not linked to the Indo-European languages. This group includes Georgians,
Abkhaz, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, and a number of
other smaller ethnic groups that reside in the Caucasus.
Armenia, although not
considered as part of Europe geographically,
has a language that constitutes a separate branch of Indo-European family of
languages and the nation is considered to be European culturally. The Armenian
language is spoken in Armenia
and other European countries with Armenian communities (such as France, Greece,
Belgium, Russia, Germany etc.).
The Basque language is
spoken in parts of southern France
and northern Spain,
i.e. the Basque Country.
(All material taken mostly from Wikipedia free