OTHER LANGUAGE GROUPS IN EUROPE

Map showing the approximate current distribution of languages in Europe.

 

There are several linguistic groups widely recognized in Europe. These sometimes (but not always) coincide with cultural and historical connections between the various nations, though in other cases religion is considered a more significant distinguishing factor.

Germanic languages

Germanic languages are spoken more or less in north -western Europe and some parts of central Europe. This region consists of: Iceland, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Flanders and the German-speaking areas of Belgium, the Netherlands, the Faroe Islands, Norway, Luxembourg, Germany, Denmark, most of Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Liechtenstein, the Swedish-speaking municipalities of Finland, and South Tyrol in Italy.

 

Romance languages

Romance languages are spoken more or less in south-western Europe, as well as Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe.This area consists of: Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Romania, Moldova, Wallonia, Romandy, French-speaking Switzerland, Romansh-speaking Switzerland, and Italian-speaking Switzerland. All Romance languages are derived from the Roman language, Latin.

Slavic languages

Slavic languages are spoken in Central and Eastern Europe. This area consists of: Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Macedonia, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.

 

Uralic languages

The Uralic Languages are divided into three groups of which the Finno-Permic languages are spoken in Finland, Estonia and European Russia while the Ugric languages are spoken in Hungary and Siberian Russia.

 

Altaic languages

Turkic Languages are spoken in Turkey, Azerbaijan, the unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, parts of Bulgaria, parts of Romania, parts of Macedonia, parts of Moldova, parts of Russia, parts of Ukraine and parts of the Caucasus.

 

Baltic languages

Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia. Estonias national language is part of the Finno-Ugric family even though it is a Baltic state geographically.

 

Celtic languages

Celtic Europe, where Celtic languages are spoken, or where they were previously spoken and the population still shares a Celtic heritage for non-linguistic reasons. The Celtic nations are: Ireland, Scotland (UK), Wales(UK), Cornwall (UK), the Isle of Man (a British Crown dependency) and Brittany (within France). These are all nations where a Celtic language is spoken, or was spoken into modern times, and there is a degree of shared culture (see Pan Celticism).

Sometimes considered Celtic nations are Galicia and Asturias (both autonomous communities of Spain), whose own Celtic language died out a millennium ago, and England where Celtic influence remains in some regional dialects (see Cumbric), although England's Celtic languages died out as recently as the 18th century in Devon. The main religions are Catholicism and Protestantism, which are particularly mixed in Northern Ireland and Scotland.

 

Other languages

Outside of these six main linguistic groups one can find:

Greek language, spoken in Greece and Cyprus.

The Albanian language is its own independent branch of the Indo-European language family with no close living relatives. There is no scholarly consensus over its origin. Some scholars maintain that it derives from the Illyrian language.

Ibero-Caucasian, a group that includes ethnic groups throughout the Caucasus region (both North and South). Ibero-Caucasian languages are not linked to the Indo-European languages. This group includes Georgians, Abkhaz, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, and a number of other smaller ethnic groups that reside in the Caucasus.

Armenia, although not considered as part of Europe geographically, has a language that constitutes a separate branch of Indo-European family of languages and the nation is considered to be European culturally. The Armenian language is spoken in Armenia and other European countries with Armenian communities (such as France, Greece, Belgium, Russia, Germany etc.).

The Basque language is spoken in parts of southern France and northern Spain, i.e. the Basque Country.

 

(All material taken mostly from Wikipedia free encyclopedia)